The objectives of presenting these studies from a bayesian perspective are to explore how analytical epidemiological studies fit into the bayesian paradigm, to make some simple methods accessible and to make suggestions for bayesian analysis and interpretation of such studies. Case-control studies often include matching designs to improve sampling efficiency, which conditions analyses on the matching factors 30 alternately, a researcher may believe specific variables and product terms need to be included in the regression models a priori based on substantive knowledge 31–33 in these cases, or when model reduction exercises fail to solve sparse-data problems, an approach to evaluate the sensitivity of a parameter estimate to sparse data can be valuable.
Simple bayesian analyses for case-control studies in cancer epidemiology statistician 1993 42: 385 – 397. Assess the association between 131 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and lung cancer in a case-control study from the departments of statistics and biostatistics, university of washington, seattle received january 17, 2007 accepted for publication april 23, 2007 electronically published july 3, 2007. In spite of this enormously rich literature in the frequentist domain, bayesian modeling for case-control studies did not start until the late 1980’s bayesian analysis of case-control data seem particularly appealing with the rapid development of markov chain monte carlo techniques.
Case-control studies are particularly susceptible to differential exposure misclassification when exposure status is determined following incident case status probabilistic bias analysis methods have been developed as ways to adjust standard effect estimates based on the sensitivity and specificity.
In a recent article, cheng and chen (2005) propose bayesian analysis of case-control studies of genetic association, specifically for assessing gene-environment interaction via case-only design under independence of genetic and environmental factors. A bayesian measure of the probability of false discovery in genetic epidemiology studies jon wakeﬁeld assess the association between 131 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and lung cancer in a case-control study from the departments of statistics and biostatistics, university of washington, seattle.
An introduction to bayesian analysis for epidemiologists charles dimaggio departments of anesthesiology and epidemiology college of physicians and surgeons. The bayesian approach is \the explicit use of external evidence in the design, monitoring, analysis, interpretation and reporting of a (scienti c investigation) (spiegelhalter, 2004. In genetic epidemiology studies assess the association between 131 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and lung cancer in a case-control study from the departments of statistics and biostatistics, university of washington, seattle before analysis of the data from the current study the quantity c ba. Analysis of case-control data with covariate measurement error: application to diet and colon cancer authors ben g armstrong, we apply the proposed methods to data from a case-control study of colon cancer and diet continue reading full article bayesian analysis of misclassified binary data from a matched case-control study with a.
For simple models, bayesian analyses using vague priors often (but not always) yield results that are quite similar to maximum likelihood-based inferences, at least in large samples prior distributions represent a powerful mechanism for the control of confounding that may even alter how epidemiologists view study design.