Convergence insufficiency, a binocular vision dysfunction, is an inability to focus both eyes simultaneously on a single point, such as a letter or word, for a sustained period of time it is one of the most common vision disorders found in children struggling with reading. Convergence insufficiency (ci) is one of the most common binocular vision disorders that is encountered in optometry it is a condition that was first described by von graefe in 1855 and has been the focus of many studies since then.
We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (ciss v-15) and cirs parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. H5111 convergence insufficiency references 1 hayes, inc vision therapy for visual dysfunction and dyslexia and other reading disabilities hayes directory october 16, 2002 2 hayes, inc vision therapy for visual dysfunction and dyslexia and other reading disabilities hayes directory update search july 10, 2006 3. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions we found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey.
The cardinal signs of convergence insufficiency include an increased near point of convergence, decreased fusional convergence amplitude, and exodeviation greater at near near point of convergence is tested by bringing a fixation target toward the patient and observing for the loss of binocular fixation. Convergence insufficiency or convergence disorder is a sensory and neuromuscular anomaly of the binocular vision system, characterized by a reduced ability of the eyes to turn towards each other, or sustain convergence. Contrary to conventional wisdom, these patients are not too old to improve amblyopia, restore binocular vision in strabismus or eliminate their asthenopia with vision therapy both in-office and home therapy have their place in the treatment regimen.
Patients with convergence insufficiency often present as teenagers or in early adulthood, reporting gradually worsening eyestrain, blurred vision after brief periods of reading, and, sometimes, diplopia with near work.
Convergence insufficiency is a common condition that is characterized by the inability to maintain proper binocular eye alignment on near objects [ 1 , 2 ] patients with symptomatic convergence insufficiency report difficulty with near work, including blur at near, eye strain, or frank diplopia.
Convergence insufficiency is a common binocular vision (eye teaming) problem characterized by difficulty or inability to converge (cross) one's eyes convergence is an aspect of visual functioning that develops early in life, allowing a child to explore their visual environment and develop stereopsis (3d vision.
Symptoms are associated with close work and include blurred vision, difficulty changing focus, horizontal diplopia, headaches, eyestrain, and nausea check medication, as this may contribute to reduced accommodative responses, particularly antidepressants, muscle relaxants, antihistamines, and some antihypertensives. Convergence insufficiency (ci) is the leading cause of eyestrain, blurred vision, double vision (diplopia), and/or headaches 1 highlights: convergence insufficiency is a common near vision problem that -- due to recent scientific research -- is gaining public recognition.